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Your Rights and Responsibilities in Municipal Court


​The municipal court decides cases involving alleged violations of city ordinances, motor vehicle laws, and certain disorderly persons offenses. If you have received a ticket for a municipal violation, this article will explain your rights and responsibilities in municipal court.

What is an arraignment?

An arraignment is a court proceeding during which you are informed of the charges against you. When you get a ticket, you are given a date and a time to appear in municipal court. On that date, an arraignment is held. At the arraignment, the judge will read the charge that has been filed against you (the defendant) by the prosecuting attorney for the municipality. You must then plead guilty or not guilty. By law, those are the only pleas that a court may accept.

What happens if I plead guilty?

If you plead guilty, you are telling the court that you have committed the act with which you were charged. The judge must then decide what penalty you will receive. At this time, you should have an opportunity to communicate any special circumstances that you feel a judge should consider. The judge will then assess a penalty in accordance with the law, taking into account the seriousness of the offense and any explanation that you have given. If you plead guilty, the judge will find you guilty. Any explanation that you offer later affects the penalty assessed. By pleading guilty, you waive the right to a trial.

What happens if I plead not guilty?

A plea of not guilty means that you believe you have not violated the law in the manner and form charged on the ticket. When you plead not guilty, the judge will set a date for a trial. At the trial, the municipal prosecutor presents evidence against you, and you will have a chance to tell your side of the story. You do not need to be represented by an attorney in order to plead not guilty. You may represent yourself at the trial. If you plead not guilty, an appearance in court is required. If you wish to change your plea to guilty, the guilty plea must be entered with the judge on or before the date set for trial.

Is there a way to pay for a ticket without appearing in court?

Payment may be made for some tickets out of court. They must, however, be paid for before the date you are ordered to appear in court. If you do not pay by then, and you do not appear in court as ordered, a warrant for your arrest may be issued. To find out if you may pay your fine out of court, contact the municipal court clerk. Allow a few days to go by before calling to make sure that the prosecuting attorney’s office has received a copy of the ticket. You may also pay your traffic ticket fine online at NJMC Direct​.

What if I need to change the date of my arraignment or trial?

The court may grant requests to adjourn (postpone) the date of the hearing. Courts are usually reluctant to adjourn hearings, except in extraordinary circumstances. The sooner a request for an adjournment is made, the more likely it is to be granted. The court may require written proof of your reason for needing to postpone a hearing.

What if I do not appear in court on the date set for my arraignment or trial?

If you do not appear in court on the date set for your arraignment or trial, the court will issue a warrant for your arrest. You will be required to post bond or remain in jail until the next earliest court date. A warrant fee is assessed each time a warrant is issued.

What if I do not have enough money to pay a penalty?

If you owe fines and fees in the Municipal Court and you do not have the ability to pay, tell the court immediately. See Know Your Legal Rights!: Fines and Fees in Municipal Court​ more information about what you should do.

What if I have a warrant for my arrest?

If you suspect that you have a warrant for your arrest, there are options available to resolve the problem. Warrants for minor traffic infractions and time-to-pay issues can often be cancelled upon payment in full. Other cases require an appearance before the judge—warrants on these cases can be resolved by a voluntary appearance when court is in session. By appearing voluntarily, you are generally able to avoid being arrested at an inconvenient and embarrassing time. Talk to court staff before you appear in person. If you show up at court without first talking to court staff, you might be detained. Commonly, appearing voluntarily allows most people to avoid spending nights in jail and being required to post bond, and allows for same-day resolution and release. If you appear voluntarily to resolve your warrant, you must give prior notice and contact the court.

Please note that each case has its own unique circumstances, and warrants are handled according to the judge’s discretion. To find out if you have an outstanding warrant, or to ask about resolving your individual warrant, contact the court as soon as possible.

Am I entitled to a municipal public defender?

You should ask for an attorney if you cannot afford one. You may have a right to have an attorney appointed to represent you if you are facing sanctions that are serious, such as a jail term, a suspension of driving privileges, or a substantial fine, and the municipal court finds that you cannot afford an attorney.

The court will require you to fill out an application for a public defender and provide proof of your income. The application fee may not exceed $200.

Can I appeal the court’s decision?

You can appeal a municipal court decision to the New Jersey Superior Court. The appeal must be filed within 20 days of the date when a judgment of conviction was entered. For more information on how to appeal a municipal court conviction, see How to Appeal a Decision of a Municipal Court (from NJ Courts).​​​​​​